Evidence at Mohenjo-Daro When excavations of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro reached the street level, they discovered skeletons scattered about the cities, many holding hands and sprawling in the streets as if some instant, horrible doom had taken place. People were just lying, unburied, in the streets of the city. And these skeletons are thousands of years old, even by traditional archaeological standards. What could cause such a thing? Why did the bodies not decay or get eaten by wild animals? Furthermore, there is no apparent cause of a physically violent death. These skeletons are among the most radioactive ever found, on par with those at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. At one site, Soviet scholars found a skeleton which had a radioactive level 50 times greater than normal. Other cities have been found in northern India that show indications of explosions of great magnitude. One such city, found between the Ganges and the mountains of Rajmahal, seems to have been subjected to intense heat.
World’s Oldest Living Trees
Pando , an 80, year-old colony of quaking aspen , is the oldest known clonal tree, located in Utah , United States This is a list of the oldest known trees, as reported in reliable sources. Definitions of what constitutes an individual tree vary. In addition, tree ages are derived from a variety of sources, including documented “tree-ring” count core samples, and from estimates.
For these reasons, this article presents three lists of “oldest trees,” each using varying criteria.
Cross-dating is a valuable tool in dendrochronology and archaeology. Lack Of Visible Annual Rings In Tropical Trees? In the tropical rain forest, relatively few species of .
Their strength, deeply rooted in the Earth, is an inspiration. Their trunk and branches are a wonder of nature because they stand sturdy and impenetrable most of the time, yet they can flex and sway with the wind when needed. The whisper of a breeze in their leaves or the sight of ants marching in a straight line up or down their trunks remind us of the magic of nature that trees embody.
They live for hundreds or even thousands of years, and so we revere them as keepers of past secrets and sentinels of the future. Watching their cycles of growth, shedding of leaves, and re-flowering in the spring, people have long perceived trees as powerful symbols of life, death, and renewal. Since the beginning of time, humans have had a sense that trees are sentient beings just like us, that they can feel pain, that they bleed when they are hurt.
Trees even look like us. People have a trunk; trees have arms. And so we innately feel a deep connection to them. With their deep roots, trees carry significant grounding energy.
Rocky Mountain Tree-Ring Research
Carbon , Radiometric Dating and Index Fossils Carbon dating is used to determine the age of biological artifacts up to 50, years old. This technique is widely used on recent artifacts, but educators and students alike should note that this technique will not work on older fossils like those of the dinosaurs alleged to be millions of years old. This technique is not restricted to bones; it can also be used on cloth, wood and plant fibers.
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The Yule Log The Tradition of Mistletoe at Christmas Mistletoe is a plant that grows on range of trees including willow, apple and oak trees. The tradition of hanging it in the house goes back to the times of the ancient Druids. It is supposed to possess mystical powers which bring good luck to the household and wards off evil spirits.
It was also used as a sign of love and friendship in Norse mythology and that’s where the custom of kissing under Mistletoe comes from. York Minster Church in the UK used to hold a special Mistletoe Service in the winter, where wrong doers in the city of York could come and be pardoned. The custom of kissing under Mistletoe comes from England. The original custom was that a berry was picked from the sprig of Mistletoe before the person could be kissed and when all the berries had gone, there could be no more kissing!
Answers to Creationist Attacks on Carbon-14 Dating
For those who fear the fashion is sacrilegious, it turns out the topsy-turvy pine has deep roots. December 10th , 5: Some people joke the trees look like they were decorated after a few too many eggnogs.
Dating the Ancient Minoan Eruption of Thera Using Tree Rings New University of Arizona-led research uses tree rings to shed light on discrepancies between archeological and radiocarbon evidence in dating the ancient volcanic eruption of Thera.
Some people joke the trees look like they were decorated after a few too many eggnogs. Space saver But others are concerned the inverted holiday trees are sacrilegious. It turns out the urge to invert the pine is nothing new. This Christmas tree at the Hotel Del Coronado is upside down! Some find it artistic while others say it’s disrespectful. What do you think? Went to see the inverted christmas tree in the city today: While the trees are selling out this year, the urge to flip the fir has much deeper roots.
They were preparing to celebrate the winter solstice by sacrificing a young man under a sacred oak tree. Boniface chopped it down, according to legend. In the “Thunder Oak’s” place — the story goes — a fir tree grew.
Ageing the Yew no core, no curve
Getting back to nature can be like going back in time, especially if you wander through one of these woodlands—all amongst the oldest on Earth. And a few, like the Bristlecone Pine Forest in California, are made up of some of the oldest existing living life forms. Lace up your hiking boots, grab your pack, and prepare to enter some of the most ancient places on our planet.
The Tarkine Photo by Ted Mead 1. The Tarkine, Australia You can pull freshwater crayfish the size of lobsters out of the rivers in Tasmania’s Tarkine forest.
Dating the ancient Minoan eruption of Thera using tree rings. from bits of trees, grains and legumes found just below the layer of volcanic ash. By using radiocarbon measurements from the annual rings of trees that lived at the time of the eruption, the UA-led team dates the eruption to someplace between and , a time period which.
January Fossils provide a record of the history of life. Smith is known as the Father of English Geology. Our understanding of the shape and pattern of the history of life depends on the accuracy of fossils and dating methods. Some critics, particularly religious fundamentalists, argue that neither fossils nor dating can be trusted, and that their interpretations are better. Other critics, perhaps more familiar with the data, question certain aspects of the quality of the fossil record and of its dating.
These skeptics do not provide scientific evidence for their views. Current understanding of the history of life is probably close to the truth because it is based on repeated and careful testing and consideration of data. The rejection of the validity of fossils and of dating by religious fundamentalists creates a problem for them: Millions of fossils have been discovered. They cannot deny that hundreds of millions of fossils reside in display cases and drawers around the world.
Perhaps some would argue that these specimens – huge skeletons of dinosaurs, blocks from ancient shell beds containing hundreds of specimens, delicately preserved fern fronds — have been manufactured by scientists to confuse the public. This is clearly ludicrous.
Therefore it should come as no surprise that creationists at the Institute for Creation Research ICR have been trying desperately to discredit this method for years. They have their work cut out for them, however, because radiocarbon C dating is one of the most reliable of all the radiometric dating methods. This article will answer several of the most common creationist attacks on carbon dating, using the question-answer format that has proved so useful to lecturers and debaters.
How does carbon dating work? Cosmic rays in the upper atmosphere are constantly converting the isotope nitrogen N into carbon C or radiocarbon. Living organisms are constantly incorporating this C into their bodies along with other carbon isotopes.
Dendrochronology (or tree-ring dating) is the scientific method of dating tree rings (also called growth rings) to the exact year they were formed in order to analyze atmospheric conditions during different periods in history.
Jamie Bradshaw An ancient forest has thawed from under a melting glacier in Alaska and is now exposed to the world for the first time in more than 1, years. Stumps and logs have been popping out from under southern Alaska’s Mendenhall Glacier — a However, just within the past year or so, researchers based at the University of Alaska Southeast in Juneau have noticed considerably more trees popping up, many in their original upright position and some still bearing roots and even a bit of bark, the Juneau Empire first reported last week.
A protective tomb of gravel likely encased the trees more than 1, years ago, when the glacier was advancing, Connor said, basing the date on radiocarbon ages of the newly revealed wood. As glaciers advance, Connor explained, they often emit summer meltwater streams that spew aprons of gravel beyond the glacier’s edge. Researchers have collected pieces of wood to date using radiocarbon dating techniques, and have found that the forest is more than 1, years old.
Jamie Bradshaw Taku Glacier, located south of Juneau, is currently triggering this same process as it advances over a modern forest of cottonwood trees, offering the researchers a chance to observe the process in real time, Connor said. Unlike the growing Taku Glacier, which accumulates snow at a high elevation and thus is well situated to grow, the lower-elevation Mendenhall Glacier has retreated by an average rate of about feet 52 m per year since This year’s summer retreat has not yet been calculated, but the team expects it to be relatively high due to unusually warm summer temperatures, Connor said.
Glacial retreat worries many locals who are concerned about the threat of rising sea levels and loss of major freshwater sources that they rely on for drinking water. Anchorage, the state’s most populated city, relies entirely on the retreating Eklutna Glacier for its drinking water.
Traces of sun storms locked in tree rings could confirm ancient historical dates
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Radiocarbon dating adds to evidence that Egyptian antiquity was not quite so very ancient. “The formation of Egypt was unique in the ancient world. It was a territorial state; a state from which the moment it formed had established borders over a territory in much the same way we think of nations.
Share 0 Volcanic craters at Santorini: Credit – Tango New analyses that use tree rings could settle the long-standing debate about when the volcano Thera erupted by resolving discrepancies between archaeological and radiocarbon methods of dating the eruption, according to new University of Arizona-led research. The effects of the eruption were felt as far away as Egypt and what is now Istanbul in Turkey.
Other researchers estimated the date of the eruption to about BC using measurements of radiocarbon, sometimes called carbon , from bits of trees, grains and legumes found just below the layer of volcanic ash. By using radiocarbon measurements from the annual rings of trees that lived at the time of the eruption, the UA-led team dates the eruption to someplace between and , a time period which overlaps with the date range from the archaeological evidence.
Work conducted at the UA Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory contributed substantially to the radiocarbon calibration curve currently in use worldwide. Now radiocarbon testing requires just slivers of wood, so Pearson and her colleagues could test the annual growth rings of trees from back to BC — before, during and after the time Thera was thought to have erupted. Pearson learned about the Thera eruption while studying archaeology in college and has been fascinated by the eruption and its aftermath ever since.
Narrowing the date for the Minoan-era eruption of the volcano Thera is so important for Mediterranean archaeology that there have been whole conferences about when that eruption occurred, she said. Pearson wanted to know whether current dendrochronological and radiocarbon techniques could provide a more precise date for the eruption. The radioactive carbon within an annual tree ring decays at a steady rate and can act as a clock indicating when the tree grew that ring. Pearson and her colleagues used two different tree-ring chronologies from long-lived trees that were alive at the time of the Thera eruption but were growing 7, miles apart.
Brown provided 85 Irish oak annual tree-ring samples that spanned the same years.